Largest Buddhist Temple in the World
Borobudur, a Buddhist stupa in the Mahayana tradition, is the largest Buddhist monument in the world. Located on the Indonesian island of Java, 40 km (25mi) northwest of Yogyakarta, Borobudur was built around 750 AD. The magnificent temple is a three-dimensional mandala (diagram of the universe) and a visual representation of Buddhist teachings.
This famous Buddhist temple, dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, is located in central Java. It was built in three tiers: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with fine low reliefs, covering a total surface area of 2,500 m2. Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha. The monument was restored with UNESCO’s help in the 1970s.
这座著名的佛教圣殿，建于公元8世纪至9世纪，位于爪哇岛中部。整个建筑分为三层。基座是五个同心方台，呈角锥体；中间是三个环形 平台，呈圆锥体；顶端是佛塔。四周围墙和栏杆饰以浅浮雕，总面积2500平方米。围绕着环形平台有72座透雕细工的印度塔，内有佛龛，每个佛龛供奉一尊佛 像。该遗址在联合国教科文组织的援助下于20世纪70年代得以重建。
يقع هذا المعبد البوذيّ الشهير الذي يرقى إلى القرنين الثامن والتاسع في وسط جافا. وهو مبنيّ بثلاث طبقات: قاعدة هرميّة تتضمن خمس مصاطب مربّعة ومتراكزة، يعلوها جذع مخروط (ثلاث منصات دائرية) وتتوجها أُسطبة ضخمة. أما الجدران والدرابزين، فمزينة بنُقيشات تغطي مساحة إجمالية تقدر بـ 2500 م2. وتحيط بالمنصات الدائرية 72 أسطبة مخرّمة تحوي العدد نفسه من تماثيل بوذة. وقد تم ترميم المعبد بمساهمة من اليونسكو في سبعينيات القرن العشرين.
There is no written record of who built Borobudur or of its intended purpose. The construction time has been estimated by comparison between carved reliefs on the temple’s hidden foot and the inscriptions commonly used in royal charters during the eight and ninth centuries. Borobudur was likely founded around 750 AD. This corresponds to the peak of the Sailendra dynasty in central Java (760–830 AD), when it was under the influence of the Srivijayan Empire. The construction has been estimated to have taken 75 years and been completed during the reign of Samaratungga in 825.
For centuries, Borobodur lay hidden under layers of volcanic ash. The reasons behind the desertion of this magnificent monument still remain a mystery. Some scholars believe that famine caused by an eruption of Mount Merapi forced the inhabitants of Central Java to leave their lands behind in search of a new place to live. When people once again inhabited this area, the glory of Borobudur was buried by ash from Mount Merapi.
Borobudur was rediscovered in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles who, during his visit in Semarang, received a report indicating the discovery of a hill full of many carved stones. The hill was believed by the local inhabitants to be the site of an ancient monument called budur. Raffles then commissioned a team led by Cornelius to investigate the hill.
It was in 1835 that the site was cleared. Some efforts were made to restore and preserve the colossal monument since then. Unfortunately, in 1896 the Dutch colonial government gave away eight containers of Borobudur stones, including reliefs, statues, stairs and gates, as presents for the King of Siam who was visiting Indonesia.
A restoration program undertaken between 1973 and 1984 returned much of the complex to its former glory, and the site has since become a destination of Buddhist pilgrimage. On January 21, 1985 the temple suffered minor damage due to a bomb attack. In 1991, Borobudur was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Borobudur is the biggest temple in Indonesia. It is located in Magelang, Central Java, in addition to being famous tourist attraction; the temple has also become a center of worship for Buddhist in Indonesia, especially in every celebration of Vesak. It is also known as “The Monastery of the hill” because it is located in the hills.
This temple was built around 800 BC or 9 of this century has been designated as one of UNESCO’s cultural heritage and not only make proud to all people in Indonesia but also worldwide. This Buddhist temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 Buddha effigies. Borbudur was built by Samaratungga, one of the kings of Old Mataram Kingdom, Sailendra decent. Gundarma is the architect of record as someone who managed to build this temple.
The base of Borobudur called Kamadhatu, symbolizing human beings that are still bound by lust, four stories above the Rupadhatu, people who have been able to break free from lust but still bound manner and form. Temple as a whole has a rate of tem consists of six level of degree, circular and square the circle three main stupa as a peak. At every level there are several stpas. In total there are 72 domes in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there is a statue of Buddha.